While a few of these cosmic threats could be reduced by increasing our scientific knowledge of the issues at hand, in many cases, our only hope for long-term survival involves leaving Earth altogether and colonizing other worlds and stars.
It's not just climate change or biodiversity loss or superintelligent A.I. that could cause human civilization to fall apart—it's more likely to be a convergence of many factors happening simultaneously.
For as long as human beings have been wondering about the universe, we've been wondering if anyone else is out there. From what we can tell, the lack of evidence for technologically advanced alien civilizations seems to suggest that nobody is there.
In April, a privately spacecraft, named Beresheet, accidentally crashed into the lunar surface. It now appears possible that part of the payload of tardigrades might have survived the impact—and could still be alive on the Moon at this very moment.
With more humans and farm animals alive now than ever before, more people than ever before living in densely packed urban areas with poor sanitation, and the future threat of climate change, our risk of experiencing a major global pandemic may be increasing.
Human beings landed on the Moon fifty years ago. While it's impressive that this feat still remains the high-water mark of human achievement all these decades later, the idea of putting humans back on the Moon within the next decade seems a bit underwhelming.