While a few of these cosmic threats could be reduced by increasing our scientific knowledge of the issues at hand, in many cases, our only hope for long-term survival involves leaving Earth altogether and colonizing other worlds and stars.
It's not just climate change or biodiversity loss or superintelligent A.I. that could cause human civilization to fall apart—it's more likely to be a convergence of many factors happening simultaneously.
For as long as human beings have been wondering about the universe, we've been wondering if anyone else is out there. From what we can tell, the lack of evidence for technologically advanced alien civilizations seems to suggest that nobody is there.
With more humans and farm animals alive now than ever before, more people than ever before living in densely packed urban areas with poor sanitation, and the future threat of climate change, our risk of experiencing a major global pandemic may be increasing.
India and Pakistan do not have the most cordial relationship. Skirmishes between these two nuclear-armed nations are not as uncommon as they should be, and tensions appear to be getting worse.
Since 1947, the hand of the Doomsday Clock has oscillated back and forth—a sort of prophet of nuclear catastrophe. The clock is intended as a symbolic representation of how strained international relations and continued nuclear arms development have provided a recipe for disaster.